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AMYL ALCOHOL                               69

Amyl Alcohol, C5Hn.OH.

Commercial amyl alcohol is contained in fusel oil from fer
mentation and consists mainly of isobutyl carbinol together
with about 13 per cent, of secondary butyl carbinol, which
renders the liquid optically active. It turns the plane of polar-
isation to the left (see p. 116).

Properties.  Colourless, highly refractive liquid with a burning
taste and penetrating smell ; b. p. 131  132 sp. egr., o'8ii3 at
19 ; dissolves in 39 parts of water at 16*5.

Amyl Nitrite,. C6HUO.NO.

Balard ; Guthrie, Quart. J. C. S.^ 1858, 11, 245 ; Rennard,
Jahresb., 1874, P- 352-

30 grms. (37 c.c.) amyl alcohol.

30          sodium nitrite (finely powdered).

1 8          ( 10 c.c.) cone, sulphuric acid.

The amyl alcohol and sodium nitrite are mixed in a flask
(500 c.c.), and whilst the' mixture is cooled in ice-water, the
cone, sulphuric acid is added drop by drop from a funnel with
constant shaking. Towards the end of the process a. more
vigorous reaction sets' in, when care must be taken to add the
sulphuric acid more slowly. When the whole of the acid has
been added, the top layer of amyl nitrite is decanted into a
separating-funnel. A little water is then added to the residue
and, after shaking, a further quantity of amyl nitrite separates
and is decanted as before. The whole of the amyl nitrite
is then separated from water, dehydrated over calcium chloride
and distilled. The liquid boiling at 95  100 is collected
separately. Yield, 30  35 grams.

Properties.  Yellow-green liquid with a peculiar penetrating
and sweet smell, which, on inhaling, causes a rush of blood to
the head \ b. p. 96 ; sp. gr. 0*902. See Appendix, p. 240.
Acetone (Dimethyl ketone), CH3.CO.CH3.
Commercial acetone is obtained from  the products of the
distillation of wood.    To purify it, it is shaken with a saturated